Carob pulp preparation rich in insoluble dietary fiber and polyphenols enhances lipid oxidation and lowers postprandial acylated ghrelin in humans.

Author(s): Gruendel S, Garcia AL, Otto B, Mueller C, Steiniger J, Weickert MO, Speth M, Katz N, Koebnick C

Publication: J Nutr, 2006, Vol. 136, Page 1533-8

PubMed ID: 16702317 PubMed Review Paper? No

Purpose of Paper

The purpose of this paper was to determine the effects of carob fiber and postprandial time on glucose, ghrelin, triglycerides, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose oxidation and lipid oxidation

Conclusion of Paper

Plasma glucose and serum insulin levels peaked 30 min after eating, triglycerides and lipid oxidation peaked 60 min after eating, and glucose oxidation peaked 120 min after eating. Acetylated ghrelin levels and NEFA bottomed out at 60 and 120-150 min after eating, respectively. The amount of carob fiber consumed had no effects on insulin levels or acetylated ghrelin levels. When the meal included carob fiber, the ratio of acetylated to total ghrelin, peak triglyceride levels, and serum NEFA levels were lower than when the meal lacked carob fiber. Further, glucose oxidation and lipid oxidation were smaller and when 20 g of carob fiber was included in the meal than when the meal contained no carob fiber.

Studies

  1. Study Purpose

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of consumption of carob fiber and postprandial time on glucose, ghrelin, triglycerides, insulin, NEFA, glucose oxidation, and lipid oxidation in blood. Twenty healthy subjects were given a liquid meal enriched with carob fiber after a 10 h fast, and EDTA plasma and serum were collected through an indwelling catheter at set times.

    Summary of Findings:

    Plasma glucose and serum insulin levels peaked 30 min after eating, triglycerides and lipid oxidation peaked 60 min after eating, glucose oxidation peaked 120 min after eating, and energy expenditure peaked 60-120 min after eating. Acetylated ghrelin levels and NEFA bottomed out at 60 and 120-150 min after eating, respectively. The amount of carob fiber consumed had no effects on insulin levels or acetylated ghrelin levels, but the ratio of acetylated to total ghrelin was lower after consumption of 10 or 20 g of carob fiber compared to when no carob fiber was consumed (p=0.021 and p=0.046, respectively). A slight reduction in plasma glucose response was observed when the meal contained 5 g of carob fiber compared to the response when the meal contained no carob fiber (p=0.022), but there was no difference when the meal contained 10 g or 20 g of carob fiber compared to no carob fiber. Peak triglycerides levels (60 min after eating) were decreased by carob fiber consumption in a concentration dependent manner (p<0.001). 120 minutes after eating, serum NEFA levels were decreased by the inclusion of carob fiber in the meal (p<0.001), and this difference was more pronounced when the meal contained 20 g (p<0.001) rather than 5 (p<0.001) or 10 g (p=0.026) of carob fiber compared to when the meal did not contain carob fiber. The changes in glucose oxidation and lipid oxidation were smaller when 20 g of carob fiber was included in the meal than when the meal contained no carob fiber.

    Biospecimens
    Preservative Types
    • None (Fresh)
    Diagnoses:
    • Normal
    Platform:
    AnalyteTechnology Platform
    Peptide Radioimmunoassay
    Carbohydrate Colorimetric assay
    Lipid Colorimetric assay
    Protein Immunoassay
    Small molecule Colorimetric assay
    Steroid Colorimetric assay
    Pre-analytical Factors:
    ClassificationPre-analytical FactorValue(s)
    Preaquisition Patient diet 0 g carob fiber
    5 g carob fiber
    10 g carob fiber
    20 g carob fiber
    Biospecimen Acquisition Time of biospecimen collection Before meal
    15 min after eating
    30 min after eating
    45 min after eating
    60 min after eating
    75 min after eating
    90 min after eating
    120 min after eating
    150 min after eating
    180 min after eating
    210 min after eating
    240 min after eating
    270 min after eating
    300 min after eating

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